The intent of the project is to develop designs and procedures that should be implemented in order to ensure enough water exchange in harbours usingflushing culverts embedded inside breakwaters. Flushing culverts are mostly implemented in areas where tidal ranges are low (e.g. Mediterranean Sea) and therefore provide an improvement of water exchange to an otherwise lacking tidal forced water exchange. There is currently insufficient research that would provide a description on how flushing culverts actually work as a sea water exchange instrument. Nevertheless, flushing culvert construction inside breakwaters are often considered the most cost-effective method of water exchange improvement. The purpose of the research is to outline the flushing culvert behavior using laboratory models, field measurements and numerical models. The result of the research would be engineering guidelines and simple mathematical models (e.g. equations and graphs) that would help engineers in optimal flushing culvert design. This project has been fully supported by the Croatian Science Foundation under the project number UIP-2014-09-6774.
PHASE I: Utilize a breakwater physical model with flushing culverts placed in a wave flume in order to define the wave energy transmission and water flow through the culverts due to irregular wind waves.
PHASE II: Explore the behaviour of flushing culverts under the simultaneous influence of wind waves approaching from the open sea, tidal oscillations and wind driven circulation of sea. In order to provide a complete outline of mentioned natural flow generators present in a natural setting, extensive field measurements in ACI marina Opatija have been conducted and thereafter the data analysed.
PHASE III: 3D numerical models calibrated by applying previously conducted field measurements will be used in order to define optimal vertical and horizontal positioning of the flushing culvert and their optimal geometrical design like the type of culvert cross section, number of culvert rows and columns etc.
Bartolić, I. et al. (2017) ‘Impact of Wind , Tidal Variations , Wave Field and Density Gradient on the Seawater Exchange Trough Flushing Culverts in Marinas’, Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, 18(2), pp. 271–281.
Bujak, D., Carević, D. and Mostečak, H. (2017) ‘Velocities inside flushing culverts induced by waves’, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Maritime Engineering, Ahead of P, pp. 1–10. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1680/jmaen.2017.15.
Bujak, D. et al. (2017) ‘Volumetric analysis of flow through flushing culverts embedded in breakwaters’, in 4th Coastal and Maritime Mediterranean Conference.
Bujak, D. et al. (2018) ‘Analysis of water exchange through the flushing culverts in marina Opatija’, Gradevinar, in press.
Carević, D. et al. (2017) ‘Measurements of water circulation in marina Opatija-Croatia’, in 15th International Symposium Water Management and Hydraulics Engineering.
Carević, D., Mostečak, H., Bujak, D., Lončar, G. (2018) ‘Influence of water level variations on wave transmission through flushing culverts positioned in breakwater body’, Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Engineering, in press.
Lončar, G. et al. (2016) ‘The impact of culverts on the seawater exchange and wave action in marina waters’, Hrvatske Vode, 24(98).
Lončar, G. et al. (2017) ‘Analysis of the impact of winds, tide oscillations and density distribution on the sea exchange through culverts in the marinas as exemplified by the Ičići marina’, Hrvatske Vode, 25(101).